Addressing Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria


In Nigeria, the issue of graduate unemployment and underemployment looms large, casting a shadow over the aspirations of many young individuals. However, amidst this challenge, there is a glimmer of hope in the form of the NYSC SAED program. Aiming to equip graduates with essential skills and foster entrepreneurial development, the program offers training in an array of fields, from tailoring and photography to agriculture and ICT. Over the years, SAED has proven to be a game changer, transforming the lives of countless Nigerian youths and empowering them to not only be self-reliant but also create opportunities for others. While success stories of program beneficiaries turning into millionaires and job creators abound, the lack of start-up capital remains a significant hurdle. Despite this obstacle, the SAED program stands as a beacon of hope, offering a ray of optimism in the face of widespread graduate unemployment.

Addressing Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria


Overview of graduate unemployment and underemployment in Nigeria

Graduate unemployment and underemployment are major challenges that Nigeria faces today. Many Nigerian youths with degrees find themselves without jobs or in positions that do not fully utilize their education and skills. This issue not only affects the individuals themselves but also has negative implications for the overall economic development of the country. To combat this problem, various government agencies and ministries have initiated programs and efforts to address graduate unemployment and underemployment.

Efforts by Government Agencies and Ministries

Role of NYSC in addressing graduate unemployment

The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) plays a significant role in addressing graduate unemployment in Nigeria. As part of the NYSC program, graduates are required to participate in the Skill Acquisition and Entrepreneurship Development (SAED) program. This program aims to equip graduates with practical skills and knowledge that can enable them to become self-reliant and create job opportunities for others.

Other government initiatives to tackle unemployment

Besides the efforts of NYSC, other government agencies and ministries have also taken steps to tackle unemployment among Nigerian youths. The Federal Ministry of Youth and Sports Development, for example, has implemented programs such as the Youth Employment and Economic Support (YEES) Project, which focuses on promoting entrepreneurship and providing financial support for young entrepreneurs. These initiatives demonstrate the government’s commitment to reducing graduate unemployment and fostering economic growth.

The NYSC SAED Program

Objectives of the SAED program

The SAED program has several key objectives. Firstly, it seeks to provide graduates with the skills and knowledge necessary to start and successfully manage their own businesses. Secondly, it aims to promote entrepreneurship among Nigerian youths and cultivate a culture of innovation and self-reliance. Thirdly, it strives to create employment opportunities for graduates and address the issue of unemployment. These objectives align with the broader goals of the NYSC program and the government’s efforts to tackle graduate unemployment.

Skill acquisition opportunities provided by SAED

The SAED program offers a wide range of skill acquisition opportunities for graduates. Participants can choose from various vocational skills, including tailoring, photography, ICT, agriculture, and more. These skills are carefully selected to meet the demands of the job market and to ensure that graduates possess relevant and marketable skills. The program also provides participants with the necessary support and guidance to apply their acquired skills and knowledge effectively.

Skills Offered by SAED


One of the skills offered by SAED is tailoring. Participants in the program undergo comprehensive training in the art of tailoring, including pattern making, sewing techniques, and garment construction. This skill not only equips graduates with the ability to create their own clothing but also opens up opportunities for them to start their own fashion businesses or work in the booming Nigerian fashion industry.



Photography is another skill that graduates can acquire through the SAED program. Participants learn the fundamentals of photography, including camera operation, composition, and post-processing techniques. This skill can lead to various career paths, such as wedding photography, commercial photography, or even starting a photography studio. It provides graduates with a creative and fulfilling way to earn a living while meeting the growing demand for professional photographers.


Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a crucial skill in today’s digital age. The SAED program offers training in various aspects of ICT, including computer literacy, programming, and web development. With this skill, graduates can pursue careers in IT support, software development, or even start their own technology companies. The demand for ICT professionals is high, and acquiring this skill can significantly enhance job prospects for Nigerian graduates.


Agriculture is a vital sector of Nigeria’s economy, and the SAED program recognizes the importance of this industry by offering training in agricultural skills. Graduates can learn about modern farming techniques, agribusiness management, and value chain development. This skill opens up opportunities for graduates to become successful farmers, agricultural consultants, or entrepreneurs in the agricultural sector. It also contributes to Nigeria’s food security and makes the country less dependent on imports.

And more

In addition to the skills mentioned above, the SAED program offers training in various other areas. These include catering and event management, beauty and cosmetics, construction and building technology, renewable energy, and many more. The diverse range of skills ensures that graduates have the opportunity to explore their interests and find a skill that suits their passion and strengths.

Addressing Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria

Success Stories of the SAED Program

Empowerment of Nigerian youths through SAED

The SAED program has successfully empowered Nigerian youths by equipping them with valuable skills and knowledge. Many graduates who have participated in the program have reported a significant increase in their confidence, entrepreneurial mindset, and ability to adapt to a rapidly changing job market. This empowerment enables them to face the challenges of unemployment and underemployment more effectively and take control of their own career paths.

Creation of employment opportunities

One of the remarkable achievements of the SAED program is the creation of employment opportunities. Graduates who have acquired skills through the SAED program often venture into entrepreneurship and establish their businesses, thereby becoming employers of labor. Through their businesses, they create job opportunities not only for themselves but also for others in their communities. This ripple effect leads to economic growth and development on a larger scale.

Millionaires emerging from the program

The SAED program has produced success stories of graduates who have become millionaires and achieved financial stability through their entrepreneurial ventures. These success stories serve as inspiration for other participants and demonstrate the transformative power of the program. The millionaires emerging from the program not only contribute to the economy but also serve as role models for other Nigerian youths, showing them that success is possible even in the face of unemployment challenges.

Challenges Faced by SAED Participants

Lack of start-up capital

While the SAED program equips participants with valuable skills, one major challenge they face is the lack of start-up capital. Starting a business requires an initial investment, and many participants struggle to secure the funds necessary to establish their ventures. This lack of capital hinders them from fully utilizing the skills they acquired and realizing their entrepreneurial aspirations. Therefore, finding ways to provide access to start-up capital is crucial for the success of SAED participants.

Difficulties in practicing acquired skills

Another challenge faced by SAED participants is the difficulty they encounter in practicing the skills they acquired. The job market can be competitive, and graduates may find it challenging to secure employment opportunities that align with their acquired skills. In some cases, graduates may need further training or certification to meet market demands, which can be financially burdensome. Addressing these difficulties and creating avenues for practical application of acquired skills can greatly enhance the impact of the SAED program.

Addressing Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria

Impact of the SAED Program

Positive transformation of Nigerian youths

The SAED program has had a significant impact on Nigerian youths. By providing them with skills and knowledge, the program has transformed their lives and offered them hope for a better future. Graduates who have gone through the program often exhibit increased confidence, resilience, and a sense of agency. This positive transformation not only benefits the individuals but also contributes to the overall social, economic, and cultural development of Nigeria.

Reduction in graduate unemployment rates

One of the primary goals of the SAED program is to reduce graduate unemployment rates in Nigeria. By equipping graduates with marketable skills and encouraging entrepreneurship, the program has made significant strides in achieving this objective. Many SAED participants have successfully transitioned from being unemployed to becoming self-employed or creating employment opportunities for others. This reduction in graduate unemployment rates has a positive impact on the Nigerian economy and society as a whole.

Recommendations for Improvement

Increasing funding for the SAED program

To enhance the effectiveness and reach of the SAED program, it is crucial to increase funding. Adequate funding will enable the program to expand its training facilities, improve the quality of training materials, and offer more comprehensive and specialized courses. Additional funding can also be allocated to provide start-up capital for participants, further increasing their chances of success in entrepreneurship.

Collaboration with the private sector

To widen the scope and impact of the SAED program, collaboration with the private sector is essential. Private companies and businesses can provide mentorship, internships, and employment opportunities for SAED participants. This collaboration can bridge the gap between the skills acquired through the program and the requirements of the job market. By partnering with the private sector, the SAED program can better align its training programs with the current needs and demands of industries.

Providing access to microloans

Access to microloans is crucial for SAED participants to start their entrepreneurial ventures. By collaborating with financial institutions and microfinance organizations, the SAED program can provide participants with access to affordable and flexible financing options. Microloans can help participants overcome the barrier of limited start-up capital and enable them to establish and expand their businesses. Providing access to microloans will empower participants to fully utilize their skills and take full advantage of the opportunities provided by the SAED program.

Addressing Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria


The SAED program is a ray of hope for unemployed Nigerian graduates in their quest for self-reliance and meaningful employment. Through skill acquisition and entrepreneurship development, the program equips graduates with the knowledge, skills, and resources necessary to create their employment opportunities and contribute to Nigeria’s economic growth. With the support and collaboration of government agencies, the private sector, and financial institutions, the SAED program has the potential to transform the lives of Nigerian youths and address the issue of graduate unemployment effectively. By investing in the program, increasing funding, and providing access to start-up capital and microloans, the Nigerian government can ensure the sustainability and continued success of the SAED program, paving the way for a brighter and more prosperous future for all Nigerian graduates.

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